Linux

This page has some notes useful for Linux and possibly other UNIX-like operating systems.

If the content grows enough, I'll move some of the content to other files linked to from this page.

Handling Optical Media

Here's instructions on handling optical media.

Getting Operating System to Recognize an Optical Medium Disk

Normally I'm used to being able to put an optical disk into the optical disk drive on my computer, and having everything "just work". If you have recently added another optical drive on your machine (if you want to copy optical disks more efficiently, or if you added a Blu-Ray drive to burn larger ISO files), you may need to do more. Here's what to do:

  1. Identify the device associated with the added optical drive
  2. Ensure there is an appropriate mount point; create one if necessary
  3. Mount the disk

Identify Optical Drive Device

If you have an existing optical drive, it is likely to be associated with a device at /dev/sr0. If you add another optical drive, it is likely to be associated with a device at /dev/sr1.

Mount Point

There may be one or more of the following directories: /cdrom /mnt.

If /cdrom exists, it is probably used by the original optical medium drive and created when the operating system was installed.

If you have recently added an additional optical medium drive (like I did in September 2017), there may not be a dedicated mount directory for it; you may need to add one.

One choice would be /cdrom1; another would be /mnt/cdrom1.

Mount

Run the command: mount -t iso9660 /dev/sr1 /cdrom1.

Check the mount by running df; look for the entry for /cdrom1 and /dev/sr1.

Use the Optical Medium

Load, unload, read, and/or write the optical medium as you like.

Create ISO Image

TODO: find out how to include dot files/directories (probably .*).

How to create ISO image file in Linux

mkisofs -o /home/linuxlookup/example.iso /source/directory/

This looks more modern: Mount, create, burn ISO image on Linux

The genisoimage tool can handle iso image generation well:

genisoimage -R -J -joliet-long -iso-level 4 -o image.iso dirs/

If some files in the iso is larger than 4GB, the -allow-limited-size will be needed.

Burning an ISO Image

In case neither k3b nor brasero will handle burning a BD-R disk, and the drive you added can read and write BD-R disks, try running: xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr1 fs=32m -eject path/to/the/ISO/file.

Verifying an Optical Disk

After mounting the disk, run diff -r /mountpoint/subdirectory/ /home/username/source/of/backup/files

Ejecting an Optical Disk

Of course, you can press the button on the drive to eject the disk. If you want to do this from the command line, run the eject command.

Unmount

If you need to unmount the drive, run: umount /cdrom1 or umount /dev/sr1. You can check the mount is removed by running df again.

References

Here are some links to other pages with more information:

  1. How to use your CD-ROM under Linux
  2. How to Mount CD-ROM in Linux
  3. Using Linux Mount Command
  4. libburnia Project
  5. K3B and Brasero reject attempts to burn Blu-Ray disks on Kubuntu 17.04